An Introduction to System Design Basics

Whether you are someone just starting out in software engineering or have experience as a developer and want to improve your skills in system design, it is extremely useful to understand system design Basics well. System design is the process of being like an architect and planning out all the different pieces of a software program or technology product. Getting these fundamentals down enables you to build complex, scalable systems in a structured way.

Cartoon showing a programmer working on system design diagrams, with lightbulb and gear icons around them representing ideation and development
Just as lightbulbs inspire ideas that gears then build into systems in this cartoon, learning core design fundamentals lights a developer’s path to architecting scalable and reliable software platforms.

In this beginner’s guide to system design, we’ll cover:

  • What is system design and why it’s important
  • Key principles and basic concepts like abstraction, separation of concerns, scaling, reliability, and more
  • System design interview questions with examples
  • Resources and next steps to level up your skills

Let’s get started.

What is System Design?

System design is a structured process focused on problem-solving and preparation. It entails breaking down a large software system into its component elements, defining component functionality, and architecting how these parts will work harmoniously to achieve your goal.

The system design aims to develop diagrams, documentation, and plans that act as a blueprint for developers to code up the final product. System design ensures that product requirements are met, technical risk is mitigated and development can scale sustainably over time.

Why is System Design Important?

Well-executed system design offers many advantages:

  • Handles complex products with many components and teams
  • Scales to support potential increases in users or traffic
  • It is flexible to allow for new features and functionality
  • Ensures high reliability and availability for users
  • Makes efficient use of resources for sustainability

Getting your system design right from the start saves time and headaches down the road.

Key System Design Basic Concepts

Mastering some basic pivotal concepts equips any developer to design robust systems. Let’s explore some of the most basic ones:


Abstracting complexity away from users is key for usability and simplicity. Eg. Layers of abstraction with hardware → operating system → applications.

Separation of Concerns

Each component should focus on one specific job and do it well. For example, separating out data storage, business logic, error handling, etc.


Plan for increasing users, traffic, or data storage with techniques like load balancing, caches, and middle-tier scaling.

Availability and Reliability

Use redundancy, failover systems, decoupling, monitoring, etc to maximize uptime.

Some other big principles include parallelism, asynchronous communications, statelessness, and more. Getting a handle on these equips you to develop systems with strong architecture.

Common System Design Interview Questions

System design questions are a key part of tops company’s technical interviews including FAANG companies. Interviewers want to understand your approach, assumptions, considerations, and tradeoffs.
Some examples include:

  • Design YouTube or Netflix
  • Design a URL shortening service like TinyURL
  • Explain how you would design an API rate limiter
  • Optimize a search auto-complete feature
  • Design a web crawler

The key is talking through your approach step-by-step, rather than trying to code a perfect solution. Documenting your thoughts with diagrams along the way is extremely helpful.

Looking to Level Up Your System Design Skills?

This beginner introduction gives you the system design basics to set you up for success. To reinforce these fundamentals and practice applying design approaches, check out resources like:

  • Grokking the System Design Interview Course
  • LeetCode’s System Design Primer
  • System design interview books
  • Interactive platform for mock interviews

Learning system design is hugely valuable for aspiring software architects and for acing your next technical interview. Understanding these foundational concepts empowers you to think through complex systems creatively and systematically.

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